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Wednesday, October 19, 2016



·         The Chalukya kingdom was established by Pulakesin - I in 543 AD.
·         The capital of the Chalukya kingdom was Vatapi (modern Badami).
·         The Chalukyas of Badami ruled over all of Karnataka and parts of Andhra Pradesh.
·         They were the earliest known proponents of Kannada and were important contributor to the growth of Kannada language.
·         Inscriptions from Chalukya period are mainly in Kannada and Sanskrit.
·         Pulakesin - II, the son of Pulakesin - I, was the most famous Chalukya emperor.
·         Pulakesin - II defeated Harshavardhana on the banks of the Narmada and halted the southern expansion of Harsha’s kingdom.
·         Pulakesin - II also extended the Chalukya kingdom up to the northern portions of the
·         Pallava kingdom in the south.
·         Pulakesi - II is famous for the Aihole inscription, which gives details regarding defeat of Harsha.

·         The architecture of Badami Chalukyas marked an important phase in development of South Indian architecture. Their style of architecture is also called Karnata Dravida style architecture.
·         Important temples include: Lad Khan Temple (Aihole), and Meguti Jain Temple, Durga Temple, Huccimalli Gudi Temple at Badami, Bhutanatha Temples at Badami, Sangameswara, Virupaksha and Mallikarjuna Temples at Pattadakal.
·         Chalukya architecture is known for its fusion of Nagara and Vesara architectural styles.

·         The Pallavas ruled northern Tamil Nadu and all of Andhra Pradesh between the 3rd and 9th centuries AD.
·         The capital of the Pallavas was Kanchipuram.
·         The most famous kings of the Pallavas were Mahendravarman I (600630 AD) and
·         Narasimhavarman I (630 668 AD).
·         Throughout their reign, the Pallavas were in constant and continuous conflict with the Chalukyas of Badami as well the Cholas and Pandiyas to the south.
·         The Pallavas are most famous for their patronage of architecture (eg at Mahabalipuram).
·         Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanchipuram during Pallava rule.
·         The official language of the Pallavas was Tamil, but they patronised Sanskrit and Telugu as well.
·         Mahendravarman I was a great patron of literature, art and architecture. He is the author of the Sanskrit play Mattvilasa Prahasana.
·         He was considered to be the pioneer of rock cut architecture among the Pallavas.
·         He also contributed greatly to the Sanskrit dramatised dance worship Kuttiyattam.
·         He was also credited with inventing the seven string veena called Parivadhini.
·         Narasimhavarman I was the most famous of Pallava rulers.
·         He avenged his father’s defeat at the hands of the Chalukyas by defeating Pulakesin II in 642 AD and occupying Badami (Vatapi). He then assumed the title Vatapikondan.
·         The majority of the monuments at Mahabalipuram were constructed during the reign of Narasimhavarman I.
·         List of important structures at Mahabalipuram
o   Decent of the Ganges (Arjuna’s Penance) - Giant openair relief carved out of monolithic rock, largest in the world; Interpreted to describe the descent of the river Ganges to earth (or) to describe the penance of Arjuna to receive a boon from Shiva; Also known as Bhagiratha’s Penance.
o   Varaha Cave Temple - Rockcut cave temple; Small monolithic temple; other cave temples include Krishna Cave Temple, Pancha Pandava Cave Temple.
o   Five Rathas - Rockcut temple; The Pancha Rathas consist of five temples, each in the shape of a chariot. The temples were all carved out of a single large piece of stone.
o   Shore Temple – Structural temple; Built with blocks of granite; Sits on the shoreline of the Bay of Bengal; Unlike other temples at Mahabalipuram, this is structural not rockcut. It is the earliest important structural temple in southern India.
·         The Rashtrakutas ruled large parts of southern and central India from the 6th to the 10th centuries AD.
·         The Rashtrakuta dynasty was established by Dantidurga.
·         They came into power after overthrowing the Chalukya Kiritivarman-II in 753 AD.
·         They were based around the Gulbarga region of modern Karnataka.
·         The capital city of the Rashtrakutas was Manykheta (Karnataka).
·         They were in continuous conflict with the Palas and the Pratiharas for more than two centuries.
·         At the height of their power, the Rashtrakutas kingdom included all of Karnataka and Maharashtra and parts of Andhra Pradesh.
·         The most important kings of the Rashtrakutas were Dhruva Dharavarsha (780793 AD), Govinda III (793814 AD) and Amogavarsha (800878 AD).
·         The Rashtrakutas issued coins in silver and gold.
·         Kannada literature attained prominence and importance during the reign of the Rashtrakutas.
·         Kavirajamarga by king Amogavarsha is the earliest available literary work in Kannada. He also wrote the Prashnottara Ratnamalika, a religious work in Sanskrit.
·         Adipurana, a life history of the first Jain Tirthankara Rishabadeva in Kannada, was written by Pampa (950 AD). He also wrote the Vikaramarjuna Vijaya, based on the Mahabharata story. Pampa is recognised as one of the most famous Kannada writers.
·         Sri Ponna wrote the history of the 16th Jain Tirthankara Shantinatha, entitled Shantipurana. His other writings in Kannada included BhuvanaikaKaramabhyudaya, Jinaksaramale and Gataprataigata
·         Trikrama (915 AD) wrote the Nalachampu, Damayanthi Katha and Madalaschampu in Kannada.
·         The Kailasanatha Temple at Ellora (Maharashtra) was constructed by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I (8th century AD). The Kailasanatha Temple was carved out of a single rock, and is known for its vertical excavation i.e. it was carved starting from the top and proceeding downwards. The Kailasantha Temple is considered to be the pinnacle of Rashtrakuta architecture.
·         The Rashtrakutas also built some of the sculptures at the Elephanta Caves near Mumbai.
·         Other famous Rashtrakuta architecture includes the Kasiviswanatha Temple and Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal, Karnataka and the Navalinga Temple at Kuknur, Karnataka.
·         The architectural style used by the Rashtrakutas was primarily Dravidian.
THE PALAS (750 – 1150 AD):
·         The Palas ruled Bengal and much of northern India from the 8th to the 12th centuries AD.
·         The Pala dynasty was established by Gopala (750770 AD).
·         The capital cities of the Palas were Pataliputra (Bihar) and Gaur (West Bengal).
·         The Palas were in continuous conflict with the Rashtrakutas and the Pratiharas for more than two centuries.
·         The Pala kingdom reached its peak under Dharmapala (770810 AD) and Devapala (810850 AD).
·         The Palas patronized the Buddhist universities at Vikramashila(built by Dharmapala) and Nalanda. The Nalanda University reached its height during the reign of the Palas.
·         The Somapura Mahavihara, built by the Pala emperor Dharmapala, is the largest Buddhist vihara in the Indian subcontinent (presently located in Paharpur, Bangladesh).
·         The earliest development of protoBangla language was during the Pala reign.
·         The Buddhist texts Charyapada were the earliest form of Bangla language. The Charyapada is a collection of mystical poems from the Tantric school of Buddhism.
·         The Buddhist teacher Atisha Dipankara Shrijana wrote over 200 books, primarily translations of Sanskrit Buddhist manuscripts into Tibetan.
·         Sandhyakar Nandi wrote the famous epic poem Ramacharitam in Sanskrit (late 11th century). The Ramacharitam simultaneously narrates the story of the Ramayana as well as events in Bengal during the Pala reign.

PRATIHARAS (730 – 1036 AD):
·         The Pratiharas ruled much of northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries AD.
·         Also known as Gurjara Pratiharas, they were associated with the Gujjar tribe and were considered to be Rajputs clans.
·         The Pratihara dynasty is said to have been founded by Harichandra in the 6th century.
·         The capital cities of the Pratiharas were Kannauj and Avanti.
·         They used Sanskrit, Marwari and Malwi as official languages.
·         They were in continuous conflict with the Rashtrakutas and the Palas for more than two centuries.
·         They were credited with repulsing Arab invasions in western India in the 7th and 8th centuries AD.
·         Nagabhata I (730756 AD) was the first important ruler. He defeated the advancing Arab armies at the Battle of Rajasthan (738 AD).
·         Vatsaraja (775805 AD) sought to capture Kannauj, which brought them into conflict with the Palas and the Rashtrakutas.
·         Nagabhata II (805833 AD) rebuilt the great Shiva temple at Somnath which had been earlier destroyed by Junaid of Sind.

·         Bhoja or Mihir Bhoja (836 – 882 AD) was greatest ruler of this dynasty. He was devotee of Vishnu and adopted the title of Adivarah.


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