Daily GK Updates & Daily News in India with free current affairs. You will get free Current affairs on Daily Basis and GK questions which will help you in Banking and SSC Exams. Daily News in India. Check this Current affair page on daily basis for the improvement of General awareness section. Free GK Quiz on Daily Basis.

Monday, October 10, 2016

GK History Series for COMPETITIVE EXAMS (HISTORY-3)

Post Mauryans

THE SUNGA DYNASTY: (185 BC – 73 BC)
  • Pushyamitra founded this dynasty. His dominions extended to South as far as the Narmada River & included cities of Pataliputra, Ayodhya & Vidisha (capital).
  • He performed two Ashwamedha sacrifices.
  • He also defeated the Bactrian king, Dematrius.
  • The fifth king was Bhagabhadra, to whose court Heliodoros, the Greek ambassador visited.
  • A Shunga king, Agnimitra was the hero of Kalidasa’s Malavikagnimitram.
  • They were basically Brahmins.
  • This period saw the revival of Bhagvatism.
  • Patanjali’s classic Mahabhashya was written at this time.


THE KANVA DYNASTY: (73 BC – 28 BC; capital - patliputra)
  • The founder of this short-lived dynasty was Vasudeva, who killed the last Sunga king, Devabhuti.
  • They were swept away by Satavahanas of the Deccan.

THE CHETIS OF KALINGA
  • The Hathigumpha inscription (near Bhubhaneshwar, Orissa) of Kharavela, the third ruler of the dynasty, gives information about the Chetis.
  • Kharavela pushed his kingdom beyond the Godavari in the South.
  • He was a follower of Jainism and patronized it to a great extent.


THE SATAVAHANAS OR THE ANDHRAS: (60 BC – 225 AD)
  • They were the successors of the Mauryans in the Deccan & the central India.
  • Simuka is regarded as the founder of this dynasty.
  • The most important king was Gautamiputra Satakarni (AD 106 – 130) who raised the power and prestige of Satavahanas to greater heights. He set up his capital at Paithan on the Godavari in Aurangabad distt.

Important aspects of Satavahanas :
  • Mostly issued lead coins (apart from copper and bronze).
  • Acted as a bridge between North and South India.
  • Satavahanas rulers called themselves Brahmans. Performed Vedic rituals and worshipped gods like Krishna, Vasudeva and others. However, they also promoted Buddhism by granting land to the monks.
  • The two common religious constructions were the Buddhist temple that was called ‘Chaitya’ & the monasteries, which was called ‘Vihara’. The most famous Chaitya is that of Karle in W. Deccan.
  • Started the practice of granting tax free villages to brahmanas & Buddhist monks.
  • The official language was Prakrit & the script was Brahmi, as in Ashokan times. One Prakrit text called Gathasattasai is attributed to a Satavahana king called Hala.
Sangam Age
(1 AD – 3 AD)

PANDYAS:
  • Their capital was Madurai.
  • First mentioned by Megasthenes, who says that their kingdom was famous for pearls and was ruled by a woman.
  • The Pandya kings profited from trade with the Roman Empire and sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augus.

CHOLAS:
  • The kingdom was called Cholamandalam or Coromondal. The chief centre was Uraiyur, a place famous for cotton trade. Capital was Kaveripattanam/Puhar.
  • A Chola king named Elara conquered SriLanka & ruled it over for 50 years.
  • Karikala was their famous king.
  • Main source of wealth was trade in cotton cloth. They also maintained an efficient navy.

CHERAS:
  • Their capital was Vanji (also called Kerala country).
  • It owed its importance to trade with the Romans. The Romans set up two regiments there to protect their interests.
  • Fought against the Cholas about 150 AD.
  • Greatest king was Senguttuvan, the Red Chera.

MISCELLANEOUS
  • All the gathered information is based on Sangam literature. Sangam was a college or assembly of Tamil poets held probably under Royal Patronage (esp. Pandyas)
  • Sangam age corresponds to the post-Maurya and the pre-Gupta period.
  • Three Sangamas were held:
    • The first Sangam was held at Madurai but its work has not survived. Its chairman was Agastya.
    • The second Sangam was held at Kapatpuram. Its chairman was Tolkappiyar (author of Tolkappium).
    • The third Sangam was held at Madurai. Its chairman was Nakkirar. It was the third Sangam from which covers the entire corpus of Sangam literature.
  • Silappadikaram by llano Adigal (story of a married couple) and Manimekalai by Sattanar are the famous epics of this time.
  • Other books are Tolkappium by Tolkappiyar, Jivikachintamani by Tirutakkdewar and Kural (called the ‘fifth veda’ or ‘the Bible of the Tamil Land’) by Tiruvalluvar.
  • The chief local god was Murugan, who was also called Subramaniya.
  • ‘Pariyars’ – agricultural laborers who used to work in animal skin.
  • Civil and military offices held by vellalas (rich peasants).
  • The ruling class was called “Arasar”.
  • Captains of the army were given the title ENADI in formal functions.


Share:

0 comments:

Post a Comment

DAILY GK

DAILY GK
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS