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Monday, October 10, 2016

History GK Series For Various COMPETITIVE EXAMS (HISTORY-4)

Sangam Age
(1 AD – 3 AD)
PANDYAS:
  • Their capital was Madurai.
  • First mentioned by Megasthenes, who says that their kingdom was famous for pearls and was ruled by a woman.
  • The Pandya kings profited from trade with the Roman Empire and sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augus.

CHOLAS:
  • The kingdom was called Cholamandalam or Coromondal. The chief centre was Uraiyur, a place famous for cotton trade. Capital was Kaveripattanam/Puhar.
  • A Chola king named Elara conquered SriLanka & ruled it over for 50 years.
  • Karikala was their famous king.
  • Main source of wealth was trade in cotton cloth. They also maintained an efficient navy.
CHERAS:
  • Their capital was Vanji (also called Kerala country).
  • It owed its importance to trade with the Romans. The Romans set up two regiments there to protect their interests.
  • Fought against the Cholas about 150 AD.
  • Greatest king was Senguttuvan, the Red Chera.

MISCELLANEOUS
  • All the gathered information is based on Sangam literature. Sangam was a college or assembly of Tamil poets held probably under Royal Patronage (esp. Pandyas)
  • Sangam age corresponds to the post-Maurya and the pre-Gupta period.
  • Three Sangamas were held:
    • The first Sangam was held at Madurai but its work has not survived. Its chairman was Agastya.
    • The second Sangam was held at Kapatpuram. Its chairman was Tolkappiyar (author of Tolkappium).
    • The third Sangam was held at Madurai. Its chairman was Nakkirar. It was the third Sangam from which covers the entire corpus of Sangam literature.
  • Silappadikaram by llano Adigal (story of a married couple) and Manimekalai by Sattanar are the famous epics of this time.
  • Other books are Tolkappium by Tolkappiyar, Jivikachintamani by Tirutakkdewar and Kural (called the ‘fifth veda’ or ‘the Bible of the Tamil Land’) by Tiruvalluvar.
  • The chief local god was Murugan, who was also called Subramaniya.
  • ‘Pariyars’ – agricultural laborers who used to work in animal skin.
  • Civil and military offices held by vellalas (rich peasants).
  • The ruling class was called “Arasar”.
  • Captains of the army were given the title ENADI in formal functions.


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