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Wednesday, October 26, 2016

GK SERIES FOR SSC,IAS,PCS,HAS,HCS AND OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMS (HISTORY-10)

GK SERIES FOR SSC,IAS,PCS,HAS,HCS
AND OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMS
(HISTORY-10)

SAYYID DYNASTY

Sayyid Dynasty (1414 - 1451 AD)
The Mongol invader Timur, who had invaded, plundered and slaughtered the people of Delhi in 1398, appointed Sayyid Khizr Khan as governor of Lahore, Multan and Dipalpur.
After the departure of Timur, he declared himself the viceroy of Timur in north-western India and defied the authority of Delhi, then ruled by Mallu Khan and sultan Mahmud Tughlaq.
After the latter’s death, he invaded Delhi and became its master in 1414 and founder the Sayyid dynasty.
Khizr Khan (1414 - 21)
·         He didn’t assume the royal title.
·         He professed to rule as the deputy of Timur’s son and successor, Shahrukh, to whom he probably sent occasional tributes.
·         He tried to suppress the refractory chieftains in Katehar (Rohilkhand), the Doab and Mewat.
Mubarkh Shah (1421 – 34)
·         He was the son and successor of Khizr Khan and assumed the title of sultan.
·         He defeated the Muslim nobles – Jasrath Khokhar and Turkbaccha in the Punjab.
·         He was beheaded in 1434.


The conspirators led by Sarwar-ul-Mulk, raised Muhammad Shah, a nephew of Mubarakh Shah, on the throne, although the real power of the state was usurped by Sarwar-ul-Mulk, the wazir. Bahlol Lodi, the governor of Lahore, helped sultan in saving Delhi from invasion by Malwa, and hence he was conferred with the title of khan-i-khana by sultan.
On the death of Mahummad Shah in 1445, his son Alauddin ascended the throne of Delhi with his high sounding title of Alam Shah. He is the last and most incompetent ruler of Sayyid dynasty. Bahlul lodi, deposed ‘Alam Shah’ and laid the foundation of a new dynasty on the throne of Delhi but permitted the ex-sultan to retain his estate of Badaun. Alam Shah died in 1478.
Lodi Dynasty (1451 AD to 1526 AD)
The Lodis were of Afghan origin.
Bahlol Lodhi (1451 - 88):
·         Bahlol Lodhi was one of the Afghan sardars who established himself in Punjab after the invasion of Timur. He founded the Lodhi dynasty.
·         Jaunpur was annexed into Delhi Sultanate during his reign.
Sikandar Lodhi (1489 - 1517)
·         Sikandar Lodi was the son of Bahlol Lodhi who conquered Bihar and Western Bengal.
·         Agra city was founded by him in 1506.
·         Sikandar was a fanatical Muslim and he broke the sacred images of the Jwalamukhi Temple at Nagar Kot and ordered the temples of Mathura to be destroyed.
·         He re-imposed Jaziya tax on non-muslims
·         He use to write poems with the pen name ―Gulrakhi.
·         He took a keen interest in the development of agriculture. He introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandari (Sikandar‘s yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
Ibrahim Lodhi (1517 - 26)
·         He was the last king of the Lodhi dynasty and the last Sultan of Delhi.
·         He was the son of Sikandar Lodhi.
·         At last Daulat Khan Lodhi, the governor of Punja invited Babur to overthrow Ibrahim Lodhi.
·         Babur accepted the offer and inflicted a crushing defeat on Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat in 1526 and Mughal rule was established in India.
·         He was the only Sultan who died in battle field.


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