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Wednesday, October 26, 2016

GK SERIES FOR SSC,IAS,PCS,HAS,HCS AND OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMS (HISTORY-11)

GK SERIES FOR SSC,IAS,PCS,HAS,HCS
AND OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMS
(HISTORY-11)
BUDDHISM
Founder- Gautam Buddha
·         He was born in 563 BC at Kapilvastu in Lumbini.
·         Father - ’Sudhodhana’; Mother - ‘Mahamaya’; Maternal Aunt - 'Gautami'; Wife - 'Yashodhara' (who is also known as Bimba and Gopa); Son - 'Rahul'.
·         Buddha left his place at the age of 29 and became a monk on the banks of river ‘Anoma’.
·         His two teachers were 'Alaraklama' and 'Sudrakaramputra'.
·         Buddha achieved salvation at the age of 35 at a place called Bodh Gaya under a Peepal tree on the banks of river ‘Niranjana’. After this incident, he became famous as Tathagat or Buddha.
·         He delivered his first sermon at Sarnath.
·         His main followers were Bimbisara, Prasenjit, Ajatasatru and Udayin. These were rulers. Besides them, other important were Upali and Ananda.
·         Buddha made two shudra disciples - Tapsus and Kallika.
·         Buddha died in 483 BC at Kushinagar on banks of river Hiranyawati.
Incidents related to his life:
·         ‘Mahabhinishkarmana’ -  when he left his home in search of truth.
·         'Nirvana' - when he achieved salvation.
·         ‘Dharamchakraparivartin’ - when he delivered his first sermon.
·          ‘Mahaparinirvana’ - when he died in 483 BC.


The Tri-Ratnas of Buddhism were:
1)     Buddha
2)     Dhamma
3)     Sangha
·         Buddha propounded the theory of eight fold path for achievement of Nirvana .It included:
1.     Right Vision.
2.     Right Aim
3.     Right Speech
4.     Right Action
5.     Right Faith
6.     Right Exercise
7.     Right Concentration/Memory
8.     Right Knowledge.
This path has been defined by Buddha as ‘Middle path’.
·         Buddha was fed his last meal by ‘Kanda’.
·         A cow named as ‘Sujata’ used to serve Buddha.
·         ‘Kanthak’ was the name of horse of Buddha.
·         ‘Angulimaal’ was a famous dacoit who embraced Buddhism.
·         ‘Amarpali’ was a famous dancer who embraced Buddhism.
·         The ‘Ashtmahasthana’ which includes Lumbini, Gaya, Sarnath, Sravasti, Vaishali, Rajgir, Sankasya, Kushinagar are eight important places associated to Buddhism.
·         BuddhPurnima is important because same day, Buddha was born, gained salvation and died.
·         There are different symbols for different incidents of Buddha’s life:
            1. Bull and lotus for Birth.
            2. Horse for Mahabhanishkarmana.
            3. ‘Peeple’ represents Knowledge.
            4. Footprint represents Nirvana.
            5. ‘Stupa’ represents Mahaparinirvana.
·         Three important buildings of Buddhism are:
Chaityas were the places of worship of the Buddhist monks.
Viharas were the monasteries where monks stayed.
Stupas were meant for keeping relics of Buddhist monks.
·         Tripitakas are the religious texts of Budhism.
·         Wheel is the religious symbol of Budhism.
·         Abstinance from harming living beings, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and intoxication are the five truths of Budhism.
BUDDHIST COUNCILS:
S.NO
PLACE
PATRONIZATION
PRESIDED BY
ACHIEVEMENT
1.
Rajgir
(483 BC)
Ajatashatru
Mahakshapa
Compilation of sermons of Buddha inti Suttapitaka and Vinaypitaka.
2.
Vaishali (383 BC)
Kalasoka
Sabakami
Buddhism divided into Sthavirvardins &Mahasangikas.
3.
Pataliputra (251 BC)
Ashoka
Mogaliputra Tissa
Compilation of Abidhampitaka.
4.
Kundalvan (72 AD)
Jalandhar (as per Ceylonese chronicles)
Kanishka
Ashvagosha
Division of Buddhism into Hinayana & Mahayana.

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