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Wednesday, October 26, 2016

GK SERIES FOR SSC,IAS,PCS,HAS,HCS AND OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMS (HISTORY-12)

GK SERIES FOR SSC,IAS,PCS,HAS,HCS
AND OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMS
(HISTORY-12)
JAINISM
·         It is believed that 24th Tirathankara (path finder) namely Mahavir was the founder of Jainism. He was born at Kundangram near Vaishali in 540 BC.
·         Father - 'Siddharth'; mother - 'Trishala'; wife - 'Yashodha' (who was a Lichchavi princess); daughter - 'PriyaDarshana'.
·         His first disciple was 'Jamali' who was a Kshtriya and was his son-in-law.
·         He left his home in search of truth at the age of 30 years and gained knowledge after 12 years at a place called Jimbakgrama on the banks of river Rijupalika under a Sal tree.
·         In Jainism the ultimate knowledge is known as Kaivalya.
·         After achieving Kaivalya , Mahavir got new names like ‘jina’ which means the conqueror, Kavelin and Nirgrantha.
·         Buddhist scriptures call him ‘Nigantha Nagaputa’.
·         Mahavir Jain died in 468 BC at Pavapuri.
·         Triratnas of Jainism – Right Faith, Right knowledge, Right Character.
·         ‘Sallekhana’ is a Jain tradition of embracing death through fasting
·         Jainism is based totally upon non-violence and prohibits its followers from agriculture and joining army. Hence, Jainism promoted trade and commerce and many people engaged in trade and commerce embraced Jainism.
·         Jainism believes in reincarnation.
·         Many rulers embraced Jainism among which the most famous are Rashtrakuta rulers and Chandra Gupta Maurya.
·         Mathura and Ujjain emerged as important centres of Jainism.
·         Jainism was divided into two sects namely Svetambars (under Sthalbahu) who wear white clothes and stayed in Magdha and Digambars (under Badrabahu) who decided to leave Magadha and went to Karnataka.
·         ChandraGupta Maurya embraced Jainnism under Badrabahu.
·         Rishabhdeva was the first Tirathankara of Jainism.          
·         The religious texts of Jainism are known as ‘Agamas’.            
·         ‘Paryushan’ is the famous festival of Jainism.
·         The symbol of the religion is ‘swastika’.

·         Four truths of Jainism - Ahimsa, Satya, Aparigraha (non-possessiveness) and Asteya (non-stealing). These truths were given by the Parshvanatha (23rd Tirathankara).
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