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Monday, September 26, 2016

GK SERIES FOR SSC,IAS,PCS,HAS,HCS AND OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMS (HISTORY-1)

Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)
3500 – 1300 BCE
[The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization]

Features of Indus Valley Civilization:
·         Cities were divided into two parts i.e. Upper town(west), also known as Citadel (i.e. fortified) and Lower Town(east).
·         Red pottery painted with designs in black.
·         Copper, bronze, silver, gold present.
·       Bodies were buried in wooden coffins, but during the later stages ‘H symmetry culture’ evolved where bodies were buried in painted burial urns.
·    Efficient town planning with streets running from North-South and East-West directions, cutting each other at right angle.
·         Northern-most site- Manda (J&K).
·         Southern-most site- Daimabad (Maharashtra).
·         Eastern-most site- Alamgirpur (UP).
·         Western-most site- Sutkagendor (Pakistan).
·         Important Ports towns: Lothal , Surkotada , Dholavira
·         Mature Harappan phase: c. 2600 – 1900 BCE.
·         Largest Harappan site in India is Rakhigarhi in Haryana.


MAJOR SITES:
1.    Mohanjodero (Term means ” Mound of the dead”)
·         Excavated by R.D. Banerjee in 1922.
·         Location: Larkana Dist. of Sind (Pakistan) on the bank of Indus.
·         Largest Harappan site.
·         Major Finding : remains of university, an assembly hall, the great Bath, a large granary, a piece of woven cotton , bronze dancing girl, seal of Pashupati Mahadeva, Steatite statute of a bearded man supposed to a priest, remains of teeth of horse, bull seal and bronze buffalo.
·         Probably the city decline due to flooding.
2.    Harappa
·         First IVC sites to be excavated.
·         Excavated by Daya Ram Sahini in 1921.
·         Location : Montgomery District of Punjab (Pakistan ) on the bank of Ravi.
·         Major Finding : two row of 6 granaries, workmen quarters, 2 sandstone statues depicting human anatomy, dog attacking dear, little bullock carts (ekkas), remains of wheat and barley and burnt bricks
·         Only sites which yield the evidence of coffin burial.
·         Rigveda Mention it as a Hariyupia.
3.    Sutkagendor
·         Location : Baluchistan on Dast river
·         Western Harppan site, excavated by Stein in 1929
·         It was a trade point between Harappa & Babylon (Iraq).
4.    Chanhudaro
·         The only city with no citadel i.e. it is not fortified.
·         Excavated by N G Majumdar in 193.
·         Location: Sind on Indus River.
·         Major finding: Bead-making factory, inkpot, foot print of a dog chasing a cat and remains of lipstick.
5.    Amri
·         Excavated by N G Majumdar in 1935.
·         Location: Sind on the bank of Indus.
·         Evidence of Antelope.
6.    Dholavira
·         Excavated by R.S. Bisht (1985-90).
·         Location: Gujarat in Rann of Kutch.
·         2nd largest site in India after Rakhigarhi.
·         Reveals seven cultural stages.
·         The city has three parts i.e. upper, middle and lower town.
7.    Surkotada
·         Excavated by J P Joshi in 1964.
·         Location: Gujarat.
·         Bones of horses and bead making shops found here.
8.    Banawali
·         Excavated by R S Bisth in 1974.
·         Location: Hissar district of Haryana on the river Saraswati.
·         Both pre-Harappa as well as Harappa culture.
·         Major Finding: heap of mustard, toy plough, good quality of barley, bones of horses, bead making shops, terracotta figurines representing humans and birds.
9.    Kalibanga
·         Excavated by A. Ghose in 1953.
·         Major finding: Furrowed Land, Fire alter, camel bones and horse remains.
·         Location: Rajasthan on the bank of Ghaggar.
·         Kalibanga means black bangles.
10.  Lothal
·         Excavated by R. Rao in 1953.
·         Location: Gujarat on banks of river Bhogva near Gulf of Cambay.
·         Also called as mini-Harappa.
·         Major Finding: first manmade port and a dockyard, bead maker factory, rice husk, fire alters, chess playing, seals of Persia etc.
·         Evidence of Joint burial suggest practice of sati
11.  Ropar
·         Punjab, on the banks of river Sutlej.
·         Discovered by Y.D Sharma (1955)
·         Dog buried with humans.


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