Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)
3500 – 1300 BCE
[The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization]
Features of Indus Valley Civilization:
· Cities were divided into two parts i.e. Upper town(west), also known as Citadel (i.e. fortified) and Lower Town(east).
· Red pottery painted with designs in black.
· Copper, bronze, silver, gold present.
· Bodies were buried in wooden coffins, but during the later stages ‘H symmetry culture’ evolved where bodies were buried in painted burial urns.
· Efficient town planning with streets running from North-South and East-West directions, cutting each other at right angle.
· Northern-most site- Manda (J&K).
· Southern-most site- Daimabad (Maharashtra).
· Eastern-most site- Alamgirpur (UP).
· Western-most site- Sutkagendor (Pakistan).
· Important Ports towns: Lothal , Surkotada , Dholavira
· Mature Harappan phase: c. 2600 – 1900 BCE.
· Largest Harappan site in India is Rakhigarhi in Haryana.
1. Mohanjodero (Term means ” Mound of the dead”)
· Excavated by R.D. Banerjee in 1922.
· Location: Larkana Dist. of Sind (Pakistan) on the bank of Indus.
· Largest Harappan site.
· Major Finding : remains of university, an assembly hall, the great Bath, a large granary, a piece of woven cotton , bronze dancing girl, seal of Pashupati Mahadeva, Steatite statute of a bearded man supposed to a priest, remains of teeth of horse, bull seal and bronze buffalo.
· Probably the city decline due to flooding.
· First IVC sites to be excavated.
· Excavated by Daya Ram Sahini in 1921.
· Location : Montgomery District of Punjab (Pakistan ) on the bank of Ravi.
· Major Finding : two row of 6 granaries, workmen quarters, 2 sandstone statues depicting human anatomy, dog attacking dear, little bullock carts (ekkas), remains of wheat and barley and burnt bricks
· Only sites which yield the evidence of coffin burial.
· Rigveda Mention it as a Hariyupia.
· Location : Baluchistan on Dast river
· Western Harppan site, excavated by Stein in 1929
· It was a trade point between Harappa & Babylon (Iraq).
· The only city with no citadel i.e. it is not fortified.
· Excavated by N G Majumdar in 193.
· Location: Sind on Indus River.
· Major finding: Bead-making factory, inkpot, foot print of a dog chasing a cat and remains of lipstick.
· Excavated by N G Majumdar in 1935.
· Location: Sind on the bank of Indus.
· Evidence of Antelope.
· Excavated by R.S. Bisht (1985-90).
· Location: Gujarat in Rann of Kutch.
· 2nd largest site in India after Rakhigarhi.
· Reveals seven cultural stages.
· The city has three parts i.e. upper, middle and lower town.
· Excavated by J P Joshi in 1964.
· Location: Gujarat.
· Bones of horses and bead making shops found here.
· Excavated by R S Bisth in 1974.
· Location: Hissar district of Haryana on the river Saraswati.
· Both pre-Harappa as well as Harappa culture.
· Major Finding: heap of mustard, toy plough, good quality of barley, bones of horses, bead making shops, terracotta figurines representing humans and birds.
· Excavated by A. Ghose in 1953.
· Major finding: Furrowed Land, Fire alter, camel bones and horse remains.
· Location: Rajasthan on the bank of Ghaggar.
· Kalibanga means black bangles.
· Excavated by R. Rao in 1953.
· Location: Gujarat on banks of river Bhogva near Gulf of Cambay.
· Also called as mini-Harappa.
· Major Finding: first manmade port and a dockyard, bead maker factory, rice husk, fire alters, chess playing, seals of Persia etc.
· Evidence of Joint burial suggest practice of sati
· Punjab, on the banks of river Sutlej.
· Discovered by Y.D Sharma (1955)
· Dog buried with humans.