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Monday, October 24, 2016

GK SERIES FOR SSC,IAS,PCS,HAS,HCS AND OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMS (HISTORY-9)

GK SERIES FOR SSC,IAS,PCS,HAS,HCS
AND OTHER COMPETITIVE EXAMS
(HISTORY-9)

KHILJI DYNASTY

Khilji Dynasty (1290 - 1320)
The Khiljis had a Turkish-Afghan origin. AlauddinKhilji (1296-1316 AD) was a prominent Khilji ruler.
Jallauddin Khalji(1290 – 96 AD)
·         Jalaluddin Khilji founded the Khilji dynasty.
·         He was a liberal ruler and adopted the policy of religious toleration.
·         In order to win the goodwill of the Mongols, the sultan married one of his daughters to the Mongol leader Ulugh Khan, a descendent of Chengiz Khan.
·         One of the most important events of Jalaluddin’s reign was the invasion of Devagiri, the capital of the Yadava kingdom in the Deccan, by Ali Gurshasp (later sultan Allaudin Khilji), the nephew and son – in – law of the sultan, and the governor of the Kara. After his successful campaign to Devagiri in 1296, Ali Gurshasp invited the sultan to come to Kara, to receive the enormous wealth brought from the Deccan as present. Jalaluddin came to Kara in 1296, where he was murdered by Ali Gurshasp, who proclaimed the sultan with the title of Allahuddin.
Allauddin Khalji(1296 – 1316 AD)
·         He was the first Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics.
·         He proclaimed Kingship knows no Kinship.
·         First ruler among the Delhi Sultans who didn’t ask for Mansur (letter of investiture) from the Caliph but called himself the deputy of Caliph.
·         He adopted the title Sikander – e – Sani or the second Alexander.
·         He annexed Gujarat (1298), Ranthambhor (1301), Mewar (1303), Malwa (1305), Jalor (1311).
·         In Deccan, Aluddin‘s army led by Malik Kafur defeated Ram Chandra (Yadava ruler of Devagiri), Pratap Rudradeva (Kakatiya ruler of Warangal), Vir Ballal III (Hoyasala ruler of Dwarsamudra) and Vir Pandya (Pandya ruler of Madurai).
·         Malik Kafur was awarded the title Malik Naib.
·         In order to avoid the problems created by the nobles, Alauddin issued 4 ordinances:
o   Confiscation of the religious endowments and free grants of lands.
o   Reorganized the spy system.
o   Prohibited the use of wine.
o   Nobles should not have convivial parties and they should not inter-marry without his permission.
·         He introduced the system of Dagh (the branding of horse) and Chehra (descriptive roll of soldiers).
·         The post of special officer called Mustakharaj was created for the purpose of collection of revenue.
·         All goods for sale were brought to an open market called Sarai Adal.
·         Many forts were built by him and the most important of them was Alai fort. He also constructed the Alai Darwaja, the entrance gate of Qutub Minar. He also built the Palace of thousand Pillars called Hazar Sutun.
·         Amir Khusrau, the poet musician, was his favorite court poet.
·         Alauddin appointed his trusted commanders, including Ghazi Malik (later known as sultan Giyasuddin Tuglaq), as warden to the North-western marches.
·         In 1316, after death of Alauddin, Malik Kafur seized the throne.
·         Before Kafur died, he nominated Shihabuddin (Alauddin‘s 6 year old prince) as King but imprisoned eldest prince Mubarak Khan.
Shiabuddin Umar (1316)
·         He was the minor son of Jhitaipali who was raised to throne after the death of Allauddin.
·         He became victim of the court politics and was later blinded.
Mubarak Khalji (1316 - 20)
·         He released 18,000 prisoners
·         He reversed all the administrative and market reforms of Allauddin Khalji.
·         During his time Devgiri was annexed.

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