Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)
3500 – 1300 BCE
[The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization]
Features of Indus Valley Civilization:
· Cities were divided into two parts i.e. Upper town(west), also known as Citadel (i.e. fortified) and Lower Town(east).
· Red pottery painted with designs in black.
· Copper, bronze, silver, gold present.
· Bodies were buried in wooden coffins, but during the later stages ‘H symmetry culture’ evolved where bodies were buried in painted burial urns.
· Efficient town planning with streets running from North-South and East-West directions, cutting each other at right angle.
· Northern-most site- Manda (J&K).
· Southern-most site- Daimabad (Maharashtra).
· Eastern-most site- Alamgirpur (UP).
· Western-most site- Sutkagendor (Pakistan).
· Important Ports towns: Lothal , Surkotada , Dholavira
· Mature Harappan phase: c. 2600 – 1900 BCE.
· Largest Harappan site in India is Rakhigarhi in Haryana.